Дмитрий шостакович биография на английском. Краткая биография шостаковича
Шостакович биография на английском
Шостакович биография на английском языке представлена в этой статье.
Дмитрий Шостакович биография на английском
Dmitri Shostakovich was a Soviet composerand pianist, and a prominent figure of 20th-century music.
Shostakovich was born in St. Petersburg in 1906 and educated at the Petrograd Conservatory. The acid style of his early Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk irritated Stalin, and Shostakovich was attacked in the Soviet press. Fearing imprisonment, he withdrew his already rehearsed Fourth Symphony; his Fifth Symphony (1937) carried the subtitle «A Soviet Artist’s Reply to Just Criticism.» It is more ingenious than most critics have fathomed, for it managed to satisfy both the backward tastes of the party censors and those of more demanding aesthetes in the West.
The 1941 German invasion of Russia inspired the composer’s Seventh Symphony, subtitled «Leningrad.» Impressed by the symphony’s epic-heroic character, Toscanini, Koussevitzky, and Stokowski vied for the Western Hemisphere premiere; the score had to be microfilmed, flown to Teheran, driven to Cairo, and flown out. The work became an enormous success the world over, but eventually fell into obscurity. Still, the composer had for a time become a worldwide celebrity, his picture even appearing on the cover of Time.
Shostakovich ran afoul of the government again in 1948, when an infamous decree was issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party accusing Shostakovich, Prokofiev, and other prominent composers of «formalist perversions.» For some time he wrote mostly works glorifying Soviet life or history. Artistic repression diminished in post-Stalinist Russia, but curiously Shostakovich still drew in his modernist horns until the Thirteenth Symphony, «Babi Yar,» a 1962 work based on poems by Yevgeny Yevtushenko. The work provoked major controversy because of its first movement’s subject: Russian oppression of the Jews.
In 1966 Shostakovich wrote his Second Cello Concerto, a work on an even higher level than his solid First, but one that has yet to capture as much attention from either artists or the public. That year, Shostakovich was diagnosed with a serious heart condition. He continued to compose, his works growing more sparsely scored and darker, the subject of death becoming prominent. His Fourteenth Symphony (1969), really a collection of songs on texts by Lorca, Apollinaire, Küchelbecker, and Rilke, is a death-obsessed work of considerable dissonance and showing little regard for the Socialist Realism still demanded by the state. Shostakovich died on August 9, 1975.
Краткая биография Дмитрия Шостаковича
Шостакович Дмитрий Дмитриевич (1906—1975), композитор.
Родился 25 сентября 1906 г. в Петербурге. В 1919 г. поступил в Петроградскую консерваторию, которую окончил по двум специальностям — в 1923 г. как пианист (класс Л. В. Николаева) и в 1925 г. как композитор (класс М. О. Штейнберга). Дипломная работа — Первая симфония сразу принесла композитору известность.
Жанр симфонии стал ведущим в творчестве Шостаковича. Им создано 15 симфоний, среди которых знаменитая Седьмая, посвященная Ленинграду и написанная в тяжёлом блокадном 1941 году. Композитор лично пережил все ужасы блокады. Образ надвигающегося врага возникает в первой части симфонии, когда звучит тема нашествия. Кроме того, в сочинении отражён контраст картин мирной жизни и разрушительной войны. Произведение олицетворяет борьбу народа против иноземных захватчиков. Кроме симфоний одним из излюбленных жанров Шостаковича стал струнный квартет.
Композитор написал 15 струнных квартетов, получивших всемирное признание. Он внёс вклад и в развитие оперного жанра. В 1930 г. Шостакович написал свою первую оперу — «Нос» на сюжет Н. В. Гоголя. В 1934 г. появилась опера «Леди Макбет Мценского уезда» («Катерина Измайлова», новая редакция 1956 г.) по повести Я. С. Лескова. Последняя опера — «Игроки» по Гоголю — не была закончена и прозвучала лишь после смерти композитора, в 1978 г., в концертном исполнении.
Если заслуги Шостаковича-симфониста были оценены сразу, то его оперное творчество долгое время не принималось как публикой, так и критикой. Общую тенденцию выразила статья «Сумбур вместо музыки» в газете «Правда» за 28 января 1936 г. То же неприятие постигло и балеты Шостаковича: «Золотой век» (1930 г.), «Болт» (1931 г.) и «Светлый ручей» (1935 г.). С 1937 г. композитор начал педагогическую деятельность в Ленинградской консерватории, в 1939 г. получил должность профессора композиции.
В период 1943—1948 гг. преподавал также в Московской консерватории. Среди учеников Шостаковича — такой мастер, как Г. В. Свиридов. Композитор являлся почётным членом многих зарубежных академий и почётным доктором ряда университетов. Творчество Шостаковича оказало огромное влияние на развитие мирового музыкального искусства.
Умер 9 августа 1975 г. в Москве.
Хорошо. Очень кратко и ясно написано. Я считаю очень отлично подойдёт для моего доклада. Пока не знаю, что поставят, но заранее спасибо
Дмитрий шостакович биография на английском. Краткая биография шостаковича
Born: September 25, 1906 — Saint Petersburg, Russia
Died: August 9, 1975 — Moscow, Russia
Dmitri [Dmitry] (Dmitrievich) Shostakovich was a preeminent Russian composer of the Soviet generation, whose style and idiom of composition largely defined the nature of new Russian music, father of Maxim Shostakovich.
Dmitri Shostakovich was born in St. Petersburg. He was a member of a cultured Russian family; his father was an engineer employed in the government office of weights and measures; his mother was a professional pianist. Dmitri grew up during the most difficult period of Russian revolutionary history, when famine and disease decimated the population of Petrograd. Of frail physique, he suffered from malnutrition; Glazunov, the director of the Petrograd Conservatory, appealed personally to the Commissar of Education, Lunacharsky, to grant an increased food ration for Shostakovich, essential for his physical survival. At the age of 9, he commenced piano lessons with his mother; in 1919 he entered the petrograd Conservatory, where he studied piano with Nikolayev and composition with Steinberg; graduated in piano in 1923, and in composition in 1925. As a graduation piece, he submitted his 1 st Symphony, written at the age of 18; it was first performed by the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra on May 12, 1926, under the direction of Malko, and subsequently became one of Shostakovich’s most popular works. He pursued postgraduate work in composition until 1930.
Dmitri Shostakovich’s is 2 nd Symphony, composed for the 10 th anniversary of the Soviet Revolution in 1927, bearing the subtitle Dedication to October and ending with a rousing choml finale, was less successful despite its revolutionary sentiment. He then wrote a satirical opera, The Nose, after Gogol’s whimsical story about the sudden disappearance of the nose from the face of a government functionary; here Shostakovich revealed his flair for musical satire; the score featured a variety of modernistic devices and included an interlude written for percussion instruments only. The Nose was premiered in Leningrad on January 12, 1930, with considerable popular acclaim, but was attacked by officious theater critics as a product of «bourgeois decadence,» and quickly withdrawn from the stage. Somewhat in the same satirical style was his ballet The Golden Age (1930), which included a celebrated dissonant Polka, satirizing the current disarmament conference in Geneva. There followed the 3 rd Symphony, subtitled May First (Leningrad, January 21, 1930), with a choral finale saluting the International Workers’ Day. Despite its explicit revolutionary content, it failed to earn the approbation of Soviet spokesmen, who dismissed the work as nothing more than a formal gesture of proletarian solidarity.
Dmitri Shostakovich’s next work was to precipitate a crisis in his career, as well as in Soviet music in general; it was an opera to the libretto drawn from a short story by the 19 th -century Russian writer Leskov, entitled Lady Macbeth of the District of Mtsensk, and depicting adultery, murder, and suicide in a merchant home under the czars. It was premiered in Leningrad on January 22, 1934, and was hailed by most Soviet musicians as a significant work comparable to the best productions of Western modem opera. But both the staging and the music ran counter to growing Soviet puritanism; a symphonic interlude portmying a scene of adultery behind the bedroom curtain, orchestrated with suggestive passages on the slide trombones, shocked the Soviet officials present at the performance by its bold naturalism. After the Moscow production of the opera, Pravda, the official organ of the Communist party, publ. an unsigned (and therefore all the more authoritative) article accusing Shostakovich of creating a «bedlam of noise.» The brutality of this assault dismayed Shostakovich; he readily admitted his faults in both content and treatment of the subject, and declared his solemn determination to write music according to the then-emerging formula of «socialist realism.» His next stage production was a ballet, The Limpid Brook (Leningrad, April 4, 1935), portraying the pastoral scenes on a Soviet collective farm. In this work he tempered his dissonant idiom, and the subject seemed eminently fitting for the Soviet theater; but it, too, was condemned in Pravda, this time for an insufficiently dignified treatment of Soviet life.
Having been rebuked twice for 2 radically different theater works, Dmitri Shostakovich abandoned all attempts to write for the stage, and returned to purely instrumental composition. But as though pursued by vengeful fate, he again suffered a painful reverse. His 4 th Symphony (1935-1936) was placed in rehearsal by the Leningrad Phil., but withdrawn before the performance when representatives of the musical officialdom and even the orchestra musicians themselves sharply criticized the piece. Shostakovich’s rehabilitation finally came with the production of his 5 th Symphony (Leningrad, November 21, 1937), a work of rhapsodic grandeur, culminating in a powerful climax; it was hailed, as though by spontaneous consensus, as a model of true Soviet art, classical in formal design, lucid in its harmonic idiom, and optimistic in its philosophical connotations. The height of his rise to recognition was achieved in his 7 th Symphony He began its composition during the siege of Leningrad by the Nazis in the autumn of 1941; he served in the fire brigade during the air raids; then flew from Leningrad to the temporary Soviet capital in Kuibishev, on the Volga, where he completed the score, which was premiered there on March 1, 1942. Its symphonic development is realistic in the extreme, with the theme of the Nazis, in mechanical march time, rising to monstrous loudness, only to be overcome and reduced to a pathetic drum dribble by a victorious Russian song. The work became a musical symbol of the Russian struggle against the overwhelmingly superior Nazi war machine; it was given the subtitle Leningrad Symphony, and was performed during World War II by virtually every orchestra in the Allied countries. Ironically, in later years Shostakovich intimated that the Symphony had little or nothing to do with the events of the siege of Leningrad but actually with the siege of Russia in the grip of the dehumanizing and tyrannical Stalinist regime.
After the tremendous emotional appeal of the Leningrad Symphony, the 8 th Symphony, written in 1943, had a lesser impact; the 9 th , 10 th , and 11 th Symphonies followed (1945, 1953, 1957) without attracting much comment; the 12 th Symphony (1960-1961), dedicated to the memory of Lenin, aroused a little more interest. But it was left for his 13 th Symphony (Leningrad, December 18, 1962) to create a controversy which seemed to be Shostakovich’s peculiar destiny; its vocalIst movement for solo bass and men’s chorus, to words by the Soviet poet Yevtushenko, expressing the horror of the massacre of Jews by the Nazis during their occupation of the city of Kiev and containing a warning against residual anti-Semitism in Soviet Russia, met with unexpected criticism by the chairman of the Communist party, Nikita Khrushchev, who complained about the exclusive attention in Yevtushenko’s poem to Jewish victims, and his failure to mention the Ukrainians and other nationals who were also slaughtered. The text of the poem was altered to meet these objections, but the 13 th Symphony never gained wide acceptance. There followed the remarkable 14 th Symphony (1969), in 11 sections, scored for voices and orchestra, to words by Federico Garcia Lorca, Apollinaire, Rilke, and the Russian poet Kuchelbecker.
Dmitri Shostakovich’s 15 th Symphony, his last (premiered in Moscow under the direction of his son Maxim on January 8, 1972), demonstrated his undying spirit of innovation; the score is set in the key of C major, but it contains a dodecaphonic .passage and literal allusions to motives from Rossini’s William Tell Overture and the Fate Motif from Wagner’s Die Walküre. Shostakovich’s adoption, however limited, of themes built on 12 diffnotes, a procedure that he had himself condemned as anti-musical, is interesting both from the psychological and sociological standpoint; he experimented with these techniques in several other works; his first explicit use of a 12-tone subject occurred in his 12 th String Quartet (1968). Equally illuminating is his use in some of his scores of a personal monogram, D.S.C.H. (for D, Es, C, H in German notation, i.e., D, E-flat, C, B). One by one, his early works, originally condemned as unacceptable to Soviet reality, were returned to the stage and the concert hall; the objectionable 4 th and 13 th Symphonies were published and recorded; the operas The Nose and Lady Macbeth of the District of Mtzensk (renamed Katerina Izmailova, after the name of the heroine) had several successful revivals.
Dmitri Shostakovich excelled in instrumental music. Besides the 15 symphonies, he wrote 15 string quartets, a String Octet, Piano Quintet, 2 piano trios, Cello Sonata, Violin Sonata, Viola Sonata, 2 violin concertos, 2 piano concertos, 2 cello concertos, 24 preludes for Piano, 24 preludes and fugues for Piano, 2 piano sonatas, and several short piano pieces; also choral works and song cycles. What is most remarkable about Shostakovich is the unfailing consistency of his style of composition. His entire oeuvre, from his first work to the last (147 opus numbers in all), proclaims a personal article of faith. His idiom is unmistakably of the 20 th century, making free use of dissonant harmonies and intricate contrapuntal designs, yet never abandoning inherent tonality; his music is teleological, leading invariably to a tonal climax, often in a triumphal triadic declaration. Most of his works carry key signatures; his metrical structure is governed by a unifying rhythmic pulse. Shostakovich is equally eloquent in dramatic and lyric utterance; he has no fear of prolonging his slow movements in relentless dynamic rise and fall; the cumulative power of his kinetic drive in rapid movements is overwhelming. Through all the peripeties of his career, he never changed his musical language in its fundamental modalities. When the flow of his music met obstacles, whether technical or external, he obviated them without changing the main direction.